On twentieth Century Anderson physics: the era of big science and "small science" the prosperity of the twentieth Century is the century of physics, physics has made a breakthrough in twentieth Century, changed the world and understanding of the world and the people of the world. Twentieth Century "physics" is sponsored by the Institute of physics, the American Physical Society organized by well-known scholars in various fields (there are many related fields, founder of Nobel Laureate) written, magnum opus summarizes progress in physics in twentieth Century, its content covers all branches of physics and related applications field. The book is divided into 3 volumes and 27 chapters, the last chapter is the comprehensive reflection of the twentieth Century physics of the three physics and the prospect of the new century physics. This paper is one part of the upper part below, see "Anderson on twentieth Century physics and physics principle: God of victory". The book is on sale at mr.. Price concessions, the audience free mail, click on the bottom of the article to read the original can be purchased. Author Philip · Anderson (Philip Warren Anderson, the 1977 Nobel prize in Physics) Cao Zexian (China Institute of physics researcher) big science times and I do not need to continue to expand the achievements of our century has made the list. What I want to do is to discuss the commonness of their history and the social ecology of them. My first argument is that this period of rapid expansion is also the period of centrifugal differentiation of physics. A sort of self identification of the elite group in early 1930s interrupted study of atoms and molecules to focus to nuclear research on this group is contributed to the Manhattan project during World War II and its derivative works. There are two paths for them after the war. Many continue to be primarily engaged in weapons design, military technology and government consultation on military matters. Perhaps the most famous and controversial example of this is Taylor. Many other people went back to the university or national laboratory, along their research subjects of natural development to the meson and other subnuclear particles from nuclear physics, or to modern astrophysics, both learned to spend huge sums of money to build a large accelerator. There is a group of people in this mixed two lanes of different degrees, forming a influential advisory group of scientists, including the like JASON and the Institute for Defense Analyses of such a large number of members of the group. Less than ten years after the war, a particular culture, which could be called "great science," grew out of the core of the Manhattan project. There are other contributors: for example, the desire to obtain fusion energy from magnetic or inertial confinement has gradually gained substantial funding from the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet union. Brook haven, Oak Ridge, Harwell, Chalk, River and Grenoble fission reactor of the study, at least at the beginning, because it takes a huge is regarded as "big science", but soon these devices are "small" scientists circle as a "user" facility. Military!相关的主题文章:

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